Title: Factor Graphs for Relational Regression
Candidate: Chopra, Sumit
Advisor(s): LeCun, Yann
Inherent in many interesting regression problems is a rich underlying inter-sample "Relational Structure". In these problems, the samples may be related to each other in ways such that the unknown variables associated with any sample not only depends on its individual attributes, but also depends on the variables associated with related samples. One such problem, whose importance is further emphasized by the present economic crises, is understanding real estate prices. The price of a house clearly depends on its individual attributes, such as, the number of bedrooms. However, the price also depends on the neighborhood in which the house lies and on the time period in which it was sold. This effect of neighborhood and time on the price is not directly measurable. It is merely reflected in the prices of other houses in the vicinity that were sold around the same time period. Uncovering these spatio-temporal dependencies can certainly help better understand house prices, while at the same time improving prediction accuracy.
Problems of this nature fall in the domain of "Statistical Relational Learning". However the drawback of most models proposed so far is that they cater only to classification problems. To this end, we propose "relational factor graph" models for doing regression in relational data. A single factor graph is used to capture, one, dependencies among individual variables of sample, and two, dependencies among variables associated with multiple samples. The proposed models are capable of capturing hidden inter-sample dependencies via latent variables, and also permits non-linear log-likelihood functions in parameter space, thereby allowing considerably more complex architectures. Efficient inference and learning algorithms for relational factor graphs are proposed. The models are applied to predicting the prices of real estate properties and for constructing house price indices. The relational aspect of the model accounts for the hidden spatio-temporal influences on the price of every house. Experiments show that one can achieve considerably superior performance by identifying and using the underlying spatio-temporal structure associated with the problem. To the best of our knowledge this is the first work in the direction of relational regression and is also the first work in constructing house price indices by simultaneously accounting for the spatio-temporal effects on house prices using large-scale industry standard data set.
Title: Hybrid Domain Decomposition Algorithms for Compressible and Almost Incompressible Elasticity
Author(s): Dohrmann, Clark R.; Widlund, Olof B.
Overlapping Schwarz methods are considered for mixed finite element approximations of linear elasticity, with discontinuous pressure spaces, as well as for compressible elasticity approximated by standard conforming finite elements. The coarse components of the preconditioners are based on %spaces, with a fixed number of degrees of freedom per subdomain, spaces, with a number of degrees of freedom per subdomain which is uniformly bounded, and which are similar to those previously developed for scalar elliptic problems and domain decomposition methods of iterative substructuring type, i.e., methods based on non-overlapping decompositions of the domain. The local components of the new preconditioners are based on solvers on a set of overlapping subdomains.
Title: Numerical Estimation of the Second Largest Eigenvalue of a Reversible Markov Transition Matrix
Candidate: Gade, Kranthi
Advisor(s): Goodman, Jonathan
We discuss the problem of finding the second largest eigenvalue of an operator that defines a reversible Markov chain. The second largest eigenvalue governs the rate at which the statistics of the Markov chain converge to equilibrium. Scientific applications include understanding the very slow dynamics of some models of dynamic glass. Applications in computing include estimating the rate of convergence of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms.
Most practical Markov chains have state spaces so large that direct or even iterative methods from linear algebra are inapplicable. The size of the state space, which is the dimension of the eigenvalue problem, grows exponentially with the system size. This makes it impossible to store a vector (for sparse methods), let alone a matrix (for dense methods). Instead, we seek a method that uses only time correlation from samples produced from the Markov chain itself.
In this thesis, we propose a novel Krylov subspace type method to estimate the second eigenvalue from the simulation data of the Markov chain using test functions which are known to have good overlap with the slowest mode. This method starts with the naive Rayleigh quotient estimate of the test function and refines it to obtain an improved estimate of the second eigenvalue. We apply the method to a few model problems and the estimate compares very favorably with the known answer. We also apply the estimator to some Markov chains occuring in practice, most notably in the study of glasses. We show experimentally that our estimator is more accurate and stable for these problems compared to the existing methods.
Title: 2D-Centric Interfaces and Algorithms for 3D Modeling
Candidate: Gingold, Yotam
Advisor(s): Zorin, Denis
The creation of 3D models is a fundamental task in computer graphics. The task is required by professional artists working on movies, television, and games, and desired by casual users who wish to make their own models for use in virtual worlds or as a hobby.
In this thesis, we consider approaches to creating and editing 3D models that minimize the user's thinking in 3D. In particular, our approaches do not require the user to manipulate 3D positions in space or mentally invert complex 3D-to-2D mappings. We present interfaces and algorithms for the creation of 3D surfaces, for texturing, and for adding small-to-medium scale geometric detail.
First, we present a novel approach for texture placement and editing based on direct manipulation of textures on the surface. Compared to conventional tools for surface texturing, our system combines UV-coordinate specification and texture editing into one seamless process, reducing the need for careful initial design of parameterization and providing a natural interface for working with textures directly on 3D surfaces.
Second, we present a system for free-form surface modeling that allows a user to modify a shape by changing its rendered, shaded image using stroke-based drawing tools. A new shape, whose rendered image closely approximates user input, is c omputed using an efficient and stable surface optimization procedure. We demonstrate how several types of free-form surface edits which may be difficult to cast in terms of standard deformation approaches can be easily performed using our system.
Third, we present a single-view 2D interface for 3D modeling based on the idea of placing 2D primitives and annotations on an existing, pre-made sketch or image. Our interface frees users to create 2D sketches from arbitrary angles using their preferred tool---including pencil and paper---which they then "describe" using our tool to create a 3D model. Our primitives are manipulated with persistent, dynamic handles, and our annotations take the form of markings commonly used in geometry textbooks.
Title: Proximity problems for point sets residing in spaces with low doubling dimension
Candidate: Gottlieb, Lee-Ad
Advisor(s): Cole, Richard
In this thesis we consider proximity problems on point sets. Proximity problems arise in all fields of computer science, with broad application to computation geometry, machine learning, computational biology, data mining and the like. In particular, we will consider the problems of approximate nearest neighbor search, and dynamic maintenance of a spanner for a point set.
It has been conjectured that all algorithms for these two problems suffer from the "curse of dimensionality," which means that their run time grow exponentially with the dimension of the point set. To avoid this undesirable growth, we consider point sets that occupy a doubling dimension lambda. We first present a dynamic data structure that uses linear space and supports a (1+e)-approximate nearest neighbor search of the point set. We then extend this algorithm to allow the dynamic maintenance of a low degree (1+e)-spanner for the point set. The query and update time of these structures are exponential in lambda (as opposed to exponential in the dimension); when lambda is small, this provides a significant spead-up over known algorithms, and when lambda is constant then these run times are optimal up to a constant. Even when no assumptions are made on lambda, the query and update times of the neighest neighbor search structure match the best known run times for approximate nearest neighbor search (up to a constant multiple in lambda). Further, the stretch of the spanner is optimal, and its update times exceed all previously known algorithms.
Title: Creativity Support for Computational Literature
Candidate: Howe, Daniel
Advisor(s): Perlin, Ken
The creativity support community has a long history of providing valuable tools to artists and designers. Similarly, creative digital media practice has proven a valuable pedagogical strategy for teaching core computational ideas. Neither strain of research has focused on the domain of literary art however, instead targeting visual, and aural media almost exclusively.
To address this situation, this thesis presents a software toolkit created specifically to support creativity in computational literature. Two primary hypotheses direct the bulk of the research presented: first, that it is possible to implement effective creativity support tools for literary art given current resource constraints; and second, that such tools, in addition to facilitating new forms of literary creativity, will provide unique opportunities for computer science education.
Designed both for practicing artists and for pedagogy, the research presented directly addresses impediments to participation in the field for a diverse range of users and provides an end-to-end solution for courses attempting to engage the creative faculties of computer science students, and to introduce a wider demographic--from writers, to digital artists, to media and literary theorists --to procedural literacy and computational thinking.
The tools and strategies presented have been implemented, deployed, and iteratively refined in a real-world contexts over the past three years. In addition to their use in large-scale projects by contemporary artists, they have provided effective support for multiple iterations of 'Programming for Digital Art & Literature', a successful inter-disciplinary computer science course taught by the author.
Taken together, this thesis provides a novel set of tools for a new domain, and demonstrates their real-world efficacy in providing both creativity and pedagogical support for a diverse and emerging population of users.
Title: A numerical method for simulating the dynamics of 3D axisymmetric vesicles suspended in viscous flows
Author(s): K. Veerapaneni, Shravan; Gueyerer, Denis; Biros, George; Zorin, Denis
We extend "A boundary integral method for simulating the dynamics of inextensible vesicles suspended in a viscous fluid in 2D", Veerapaneni et al. Journal of Computational Physics, 228(7), 2009 to the case of three dimensional axisymmetric vesicles of spherical or toroidal topology immersed in viscous flows. Although the main components of the algorithm are similar in spirit to the 2D case.spectral approximation in space, semi-implicit time-stepping scheme.the main differences are that the bending and viscous force require new analysis, the linearization for the semi-implicit schemes must be rederived, a fully implicit scheme must be used for the toroidal topology to eliminate a CFL-type restriction, and a novel numerical scheme for the evaluation of the 3D Stokes single-layer potential on an axisymmetric surface is necessary to speed up the calculations. By introducing these novel components, we obtain a time-scheme that experimentally is unconditionally stable, has low cost per time step, and is third-order accurate in time. We present numerical results to analyze the cost and convergence rates of the scheme. To verify the solver, we compare it to a constrained variational approach to compute equilibrium shapes that does not involve interactions with a viscous fluid. To illustrate the applicability of method, we consider a few vesicle-flow interaction problems: the sedimentation of a vesicle, interactions of one and three vesicles with a background Poiseuille flow.
Title: A Hybrid Domain Decomposition Method and its Applications to Contact Problems
Author(s): Lee, Jungho
Our goal is to solve nonlinear contact problems. We consider bodies in contact with each other divided into subdomains, which in turn are unions of elements. The contact surface between the bodies is unknown a priori, and we have a nonpen-etration condition between the bodies, which is essentially an inequality constraint. We choose to use an active set method to solve such problems, which has both outer iterations in which the active set is updated, and inner iterations in which a (linear) minimization problem is solved on the current active face. In the first part of this dissertation, we review the basics of domain decomposition methods. In the second part, we consider how to solve the inner minimization problems. Using an approach based purely on FETI algorithms with only Lagrange multipliers as unknowns, as has been developed by the engineering community, does not lead to a scalable algorithm with respect to the number of subdomains in each body. We prove that such an algorithm has a condition number estimate which depends linearly on the number of subdomains across a body; numerical experiments suggest that this is the best possible bound. We also consider a new method based on the saddle point formulation of the FETI methods with both displacement vectors and Lagrange multipliers as unknowns. The resulting system is solved with a block-diagonal preconditioner which combines the one-level FETIand the BDDC methods. This approach allows the use of inexact solvers. We show that this new method is scalable with respect to the number of subdomains, and that its convergence rate depends only logarithmically on the number of degrees of freedom of the subdomains and bodies. In the last part of this dissertation, a model contact problem is solved by two approaches. The first one is a nonlinear algorithm which combines an active set method and the new method of Chapter 4. We also present a novel way of finding an initial active set. The second one uses the SMALBE algorithm, developed by Dostal et al. We show that the former approach has advantages over the latter.
Title: Efficient Systems Biology Algorithms for Biological Networks over Multiple Time-Scales: From Evolutionary to Regulatory Time
Candidate: Mitrofanova, Antonina
Advisor(s): Mishra, Bud
Recently, Computational Biology has emerged as one of the most exciting areas of computer science research, not only because of its immediate impact on many biomedical applications, (e.g., personalized medicine, drug and vaccine discovery, tools for diagnostics and therapeutic interventions, etc.), but also because it raises many new and interesting combinatorial and algorithmic questions, in the process. In this thesis, we focus on robust and efficient algorithms to analyze biological networks, primarily targeting protein networks, possibly the most fascinating networks in computational biology in terms of their structure, evolution and complexity, as well as because of their role in various genetic and metabolic diseases.
Classically, protein networks have been studied statically, i.e., without taking into account time-dependent metamorphic changes in network topology and functionality. In this work, we introduce new analysis techniques that view protein networks as being dynamic in nature, evolving over time, and diverse in regulatory patterns at various stages of the system development. Our analysis is capable of dealing with multiple time-scales: ranging from the slowest time-scale corresponding to evolutionary time between species, speeding up to inter-species pathway evolution time, and finally, moving to the other extreme at the cellular developmental time-scale.
We also provide a new method to overcome limitations imposed by corrupting effects of experimental noise (e.g., high false positive and false negative rates) in Yeast Two-Hybrid (Y2H) networks, which often provide primary data for protein complexes. Our new combinatorial algorithm measures connectivity between proteins in Y2H network not by edges but by edge-disjoint paths, which reflects pathway evolution better within single specie network. This algorithm has been shown to be robust against increasing false positives and false negatives, as estimated using variation of information and separation measures.
In addition, we have devised a new way to incorporate evolutionary information in order to significantly improve classification of proteins, especially those isolated in their own networks or surrounded by poorly characterized neighbors. In our method, the networks of two (or more) species are joined by edges of high sequence similarity so that protein-homologs of different species can exchange information and acquire new and improved functional associations.
Finally, we have integrated many of these techniques into one tool to create a novel analysis of malaria parasite P. falciparum's life-cycle at the scale of reaction-time, single cell level, and encompassing its entire inter-erythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC). Our approach allows connecting time-course gene expression profiles of consecutive IDC stages in order to assign functions to un-annotated Malaria proteins and predict potential targets for vaccine and drug development.
Title: Detecting, modeling and rendering complex configurations of curvilinear features
Candidate: Parilov, Evgueni
Advisor(s): Zorin, Denis
Curvilinear features allow one to represent a variety of real world regular patterns like honeycomb tiling as well as very complicated random patterns like networks of furrows on the surface of the human skin. We have developed a set of methods and new data representations for solving key problems related to curvilinear features, which include robust detection of intricate networks of curvilinear features from digital images, GPU-based sharp rendering of fields with curvilinear features, and a parametric synthesis approach to generate systems of curvilinear features with desirable local configurations and global control.
The existing edge-detection techniques may underperform in the presence of noise, usually do not link the detected edge points into chains, often fail on complex structures, heavily depend on initial guess, and assume significant manual phase. We have developed a technique based on active contours, or snakes, which avoids manual initial positioning of the snakes and can detect large networks of curves with complex junctions without user guidance.
The standard bilinear interpolation of piecewise continuous fields results in unwanted smoothing along the curvilinear discontinuities. Spatially varying features can be best represented as a function of the distance to the discontinuity curves and its gradient. We have developed a real-time, GPU-based method for unsigned distance function field and its gradient field interpolation which preserves discontinuity feature curves, represented by quadratic Bezier curves, with minimal restriction on their topology.
Detail features are very important visual clues which make computer-generated imagery look less artificial. Instead of using sample-based synthesis technique which lacks user control on features usually producing gaps in features or breaking feature coherency, we have explored an alternative approach of generating features using random fibre processes. We have developed a Gibbs-type random process of linear fibres based on local fibre interactions. It allows generating non-stationary curvilinear networks with some degree of regularity, and provides an intuitive set of parameters which directly defines fibre local configurations and global pattern of fibres.
For random systems of linear fibres which approximately form two orthogonal dominant orientation fields, we have adapted a streamline placement algorithm which converts such systems into overlapping random sets of coherent smooth curves.
Title: Unsupervised Learning of Feature Hierarchies
Candidate: Ranzato, Marc'Aurelio
Advisor(s): LeCun, Yann
The applicability of machine learning methods is often limited by the amount of available labeled data, and by the ability (or inability) of the designer to produce good internal representations and good similarity measures for the input data vectors.
The aim of this thesis is to alleviate these two limitations by proposing algorithms to learn good internal representations, and invariant feature hierarchies from unlabeled data. These methods go beyond traditional supervised learning algorithms, and rely on unsupervised, and semi-supervised learning.
In particular, this work focuses on ''deep learning'' methods, a set of techniques and principles to train hierarchical models. Hierarchical models produce feature hierarchies that can capture complex non-linear dependencies among the observed data variables in a concise and efficient manner. After training, these models can be employed in real-time systems because they compute the representation by a very fast forward propagation of the input through a sequence of non-linear transformations.
When the paucity of labeled data does not allow the use of traditional supervised algorithms, each layer of the hierarchy can be trained in sequence starting at the bottom by using unsupervised or semi-supervised algorithms. Once each layer has been trained, the whole system can be fine-tuned in an end-to-end fashion. We propose several unsupervised algorithms that can be used as building block to train such feature hierarchies. We investigate algorithms that produce sparse overcomplete representations and features that are invariant to known and learned transformations. These algorithms are designed using the Energy-Based Model framework and gradient-based optimization techniques that scale well on large datasets. The principle underlying these algorithms is to learn representations that are at the same time sparse, able to reconstruct the observation, and directly predictable by some learned mapping that can be used for fast inference in test time.
With the general principles at the foundation of these algorithms, we validate these models on a variety of tasks, from visual object recognition to text document classification and retrieval.
Title: Learning least squares estimators without assumed priors or supervision
Author(s): Raphan, Martin; Simoncelli, Eero P.
The two standard methods of obtaining a least-squares optimal estimator are (1) Bayesian estimation, in which one assumes a prior distribution on the true values and combines this with a model of the measurement process to obtain an optimal estimator, and (2) supervised regression, in which one optimizes a parametric estimator over a training set containing pairs of corrupted measurements and their associated true values. But many real-world systems do not have access to either supervised training examples or a prior model. Here, we study the problem of obtaining an optimal estimator given a measurement process with known statistics, and a set of corrupted measurements of random values drawn from an unknown prior. We develop a general form of nonparametric empirical Bayesian estimator that is written as a direct function of the measurement density, with no explicit reference to the prior. We study the observation conditions under which such "prior-free" estimators may be obtained, and we derive specific forms for a variety of different corruption processes. Each of these prior-free estimators may also be used to express the mean squared estimation error as an expectation over the measurement density, thus generalizing Stein's unbiased risk estimator (SURE) which provides such an expression for the additive Gaussian noise case. Minimizing this expression over measurement samples provides an "unsupervised regression" method of learning an optimal estimator from noisy measurements in the absence of clean training data. We show that combining a prior-free estimator with its corresponding unsupervised regression form produces a generalization of the "score matching" procedure for parametric density estimation, and we develop an incremental form of learning for estimators that are written as a linear combination of nonlinear kernel functions. Finally, we show through numerical simulations that the convergence of these estimators can be comparable to their supervised or Bayesian counterparts.
Title: Plinkr: an Application of Semantic Search
Candidate: Scott, John
Advisor(s): Shasha, Dennis
Plinkr extends and enriches traditional keyword search with semantic search technology. Specifically, Plinkr facilitates the process of discovering the intersection of information between two subjects. This intersection represents what the subjects have in common and thus effectively captures the relationships between them. This is accomplished by semantically tagging and scoring entities that are contained within various keyword searches. The most relevant entities are thus abstracted and presented as metadata which can be explored to highlight the most pertinent content.
Title: Search Problems for Speech and Audio Sequences
Candidate: Weinstein, Eugene
Advisor(s): Mohri, Mehryar
The modern proliferation of very large audio, video, and biological databases has created a need for the design of effective methods for indexing and searching highly variable or uncertain data. Classical search and indexing algorithms deal with clean or perfect input sequences. However, an index created from speech transcriptions is marked with errors and uncertainties stemming from the use of imperfect statistical models in the speech recognition process. Similarly, automatic transcription of music, such as assigning a sequence of notes to represent a stream of music audio, is prone to errors. How can we generalize search and indexing algorithms to deal with such uncertain inputs?
This thesis presents several novel algorithms, analyses, and general techniques and tools for effective indexing and search that not only tolerate but actually exploit this uncertainty. In particular, it develops an algorithmic foundation for music identification, or content-based music search; presents novel automata-theoretic results applicable generally to a variety of search and indexing tasks; and describes new algorithms for topic segmentation, or automatic splitting of speech streams into topic-coherent segments.
We devise a new technique for music identification in which each song is represented by a distinct sequence of music sounds, called "music phonemes." In our approach, we learn the set of music phonemes, as well as a unique sequence of music phonemes characterizing each song, from training data using an unsupervised algorithm. We also propose a novel application of factor automata to create a compact mapping of music phoneme sequences to songs. Using these techniques, we construct an efficient and robust music identification system for a large database of songs.
We further design new algorithms for compact indexing of uncertain inputs based on suffix and factor automata and give novel theoretical guarantees for their space requirements. Suffix automata and factor automata represent the set of all suffixes or substrings of a set of strings, and are used in numerous indexing and search tasks, including the music identification system just mentioned. We show that the suffix automaton or factor automaton of a set of strings U has at most 2Q-2 states, where Q is the number of nodes of a prefix-tree representing the strings in U, a significant improvement over previous work. We also describe a matching new linear-time algorithm for constructing the suffix automaton S or factor automaton F of U in time O(|S|).
We also define a new quality measure for topic segmentation systems and design a discriminative topic segmentation algorithm for speech inputs, thus facilitating effective indexation of spoken audio collections. The new quality measure improves on previously used criteria and is correlated with human judgment of topic-coherence. Our segmentation algorithm uses a novel general topical similarity score based on word co-occurrence statistics. This new algorithm outperforms previous methods in experiments over speech and text streams. We further demonstrate that the performance of segmentation algorithms can be improved by using a lattice of competing hypotheses over the speech stream rather than just the one-best hypothesis as input.
Title: Body Signature Recognition
Author(s): Williams, George; Bregler, Christoph; Hackney, Peggy; Rosenthal, Sally; McDowall, Ian; Smolskiy, Kirill
This paper describes a new visual representation of motion that is used to learn and classify body language - what we call .body signatures. - of people while they are talking. We applied this technique to several hours of internet videos and television broadcasts that include US politicians and leaders from Germany, France, Iran, Russia, Pakistan, and India, and public figures such as the Pope, as well as numerous talk show hosts and comedians. Dependent on the complexity of the task, we show up to 80% recognition performance and clustering into broader body language categories.
Title: Using Application-Domain Knowledge in the Runtime Support of Multi-Experiment Computational Studies
Candidate: Yau, Siu-Man
Advisor(s): Karamcheti, Vijay; Zorin, Denis
Multi-Experiment Studies (MESs) is a type of computational study in which the same simulation software is executed multiple times, and the result of all executions need to be aggregated to obtain useful insight. As computational simulation experiments become increasingly accepted as part of the scientific process, the use of MESs is becoming more wide-spread among scientists and engineers.
MESs present several challenging requirements on the computing system. First, many MESs need constant user monitoring and feedback, requiring simultaneous steering of multiple executions of the simulation code. Second, MESs can comprise of many executions of long-running simulations; the sheer volume of computation can make them prohibitively long to run.
Parallel architecture offer an attractive computing platform for MESs. Low-cost, small-scale desktops employing multi-core chips allow wide-spread dedicated local access to parallel computation power, offering more research groups an opportunity to achieve interactive MESs. Massively-parallel, high-performance computing clusters can afford a level of parallelism never seen before, and present an opportunity to address the problem of computationally intensive MESs.
However, in order to fully leverage the benefits of parallel architectures, the traditional parallel systems' view has to be augmented. Existing parallel computing systems often treat each execution of the software as a black box, and are prevented from viewing an entire computational study as a single entity that must be optimized for.
This dissertation investigates how a parallel system can view MESs as an end-to-end system and leverage the application-specific properties of MESs to address its requirements. In particular, the system can 1) adapt its scheduling decisions to the overall goal of an MES to reduce the needed computation, 2) simultaneously aggregate results from, and disseminate user actions to, multiple executions of the software to enable simultaneous steering, 3) store reusable information across executions of the simulation software to reduce individual run-time, and 4) adapt its resource allocation policies to the MES's properties to improve resource utilization.
Using a test bed system called SimX and four example MESs across different disciplines, this dissertation shows that the application-aware MES-level approach can achieve multi-fold to multiple orders-of-magnitude improvements over the traditional simulation-level approach.
Title: Ensuring Correctness of Compiled Code
Candidate: Zaks, Ganna
Advisor(s): Pnueli, Amir
Traditionally, the verification effort is applied to the abstract algorithmic descriptions of the underlining software. However, even well understood protocols such as Peterson's protocol for mutual exclusion, whose algorithmic description takes only half a page, have published implementations that are erroneous. Furthermore, the semantics of the implementations can be altered by optimizing compilers, which are very large applications and, consequently, are bound to have bugs. Thus, it is highly desirable to ensure the correctness of the compiled code especially in safety critical and high-assurance software. This dissertation describes two alternative approaches that bring us closer to solving the problem.
First, we present CoVaC - a deductive framework for proving program equivalence and its application to automatic verification of transformations performed by optimizing compilers. To leverage the existing program analysis techniques, we reduce the equivalence checking problem to analysis of one system - a cross-product of the two input programs. We show how the approach can be effectively used for checking equivalence of single-threaded programs that are structurally similar. Unlike the existing frameworks, our approach accommodates absence of compiler annotations and handles most of the classical intraprocedural optimizations such as constant folding, reassociation, common subexpression elimination, code motion, dead code elimination, branch optimizations, and others. In addition, we have developed rules for translation validation of interprocedural optimizations, which can be applied when compiler annotations are available.
The second contribution is the pancam framework for verifying multi-threaded C programs. Pancam first compiles a multithreaded C program into optimized bytecode format. The framework relies on Spin, an existing explicit state model checker, to orchestrate the program's state space search. However, the program transitions and states are computed by the pancam bytecode interpreter. A feature of our approach is that not only pancam checks the actual implementation, but it can also check the code after compiler optimizations. Pancam addresses the state space explosion problem by allowing users to define data abstraction functions and to constrain the number of allowed context switches. We also describe a partial order reduction method that reduces context switches using dynamic knowledge computed on-the-fly, while being sound for both safety and liveness properties.