[FOM] 316: Shift Theorems
Harvey Friedman
friedman at math.ohio-state.edu
Thu Jan 24 12:36:43 EST 2008
SHIFT THEOREMS
Harvey M. Friedman
Ohio State University
friedman at math.ohio-state.edu
January 24, 2008
These bring PA incompleteness to a new level.
1. INFINITE FORMS.
We use [1,inf) for the set of all positive integers. We use [1,n] for the
set of all integers from 1 through n. For x,y in [1,inf)^k, we write x
<= y for
for all i, x_i <= y_i.
THEOREM A. For all k >= 1 and f:[1,inf)^k into [1,inf)^2, there exist
distinct x_1,...,x_k+1 such that f(x_1,...,x_k) <= f(x_2,...,x_k+1).
THEOREM B. For all k >= 1 and f:[1,inf)^k into [1,inf), there exist distinct
x_1,...,x_k+2 such that f(x_1,...,x_k) <= f(x_2,...,x_k+1) <=
f(x_3,...,x_k+2).
THEOREM C. For all k >= 1 and f:[1,inf)^k into [1,inf), there exist distinct
x_1,...,x_k+1 such that f(x_2,...,x_k+1)-f(x_1,...,x_k) in {0,2,4,...}.
Here are three stronger forms.
THEOREM D. For all k,r >= 1 and f;[1,inf)^k into [1,inf)^r, there exist
distinct x_1,...,x_k+1 such that f(x_1,...,x_k) <= f(x_2,...,x_k+1).
THEOREM E. For all k,r,t >= 1 and f:[1,inf)^k into [1,inf)^r, there exist
distinct x_1,...,x_k+t-1 such that f(x_1,...,x_k) <= ... <=
f(x_t,...,x_k+t-1).
THEOREM F. For all k,r,t >= 1 and f:[1,inf)^k into [1,inf)^r, there exist
distinct x_1,...,x_k+1 such that f(x_2,...,x_k+1)-f(x_1,...,x_k) in
{0,t,2t,...}^r..
THEOREM 1.1. RCA_0 proves that each of Theorems A-F is provably equivalent
to "epsilon naught is well ordered". In particular, none of Theorems A-F is
provable in ACA_0. They are all provable in ACA_0 + "for all n,x, the n-th
Turing jump of x exists".
2. LIMITED FORMS.
We say that f:[1,inf)^k into [1,inf)^r is limited if and only if for all x
in [1,inf)^k, max(f(x)) <= max(x).
Theorems A-F have limited forms A'-F', where we insert that f must be
limited.
THEOREM 2.1. RCA_0 proves that each of Theorems A'-F' is provably equivalent
to the 1-consistency of PA. In particular, none of Theorems A'-F' is
provable in ACA_0. They are all provable in RCA_0 + 1-CON(PA).
3. FINITE FORMS.
THEOREM A*. For all n >> k >= 1 and limited f:[1,n]^k into [1,n]^2, there
exist distinct x_1,...,x_k+1 such that f(x_1,...,x_k) <= f(x_2,...,x_k+1).
THEOREM B*. For all n >> k >= 1 and limited f:[1,n]^k into [1,n], there
exist distinct x_1,...,x_k+2 such that f(x_1,...,x_k) <= f(x_2,...,x_k+1) <=
f(x_3,...,x_k+2).
THEOREM C*. For all n >> k >= 1 and limited f:[1,n]^k into [1,n], there
exist distinct x_1,...,x_k+1 such that f(x_2,...,x_k+1)-f(x_1,...,x_k) in
{0,2,...,2n}.
THEOREM D*. For all n >> k,r >= 1 and limited f;[1,n]^k into [1,n]^r, there
exist distinct x_1,...,x_k+1 such that f(x_1,...,x_k) <= f(x_2,...,x_k+1).
THEOREM E*. For all k,r,t >= 1 and limited f:[1,n]^k into [1,n]^r, there
exist distinct x_1,...,x_k+t-1 such that f(x_1,...,x_k) <= ... <=
f(x_t,...,x_k+t-1).
THEOREM F*. For all n >> k,r,t >= 1 and limited f:[1,n]^k into [1,n]^r,
there exist distinct x_1,...,x_k+1 such that f(x_2,...,x_k+1)-f(x_1,...,x_k)
in {0,t,2t,...,nt}^r.
THEOREM 3.1. EFA proves that each of Theorems A*-F* is provably equivalent
to the 1-consistency of PA. In particular, none of Theorems A*-F* is
provable in PA. They are all provable in EFA + 1-CON(PA).
**********************************
I use http://www.math.ohio-state.edu/~friedman/ for downloadable
manuscripts. This is the 316th in a series of self contained numbered
postings to FOM covering a wide range of topics in f.o.m. The list of
previous numbered postings #1-249 can be found at
http://www.cs.nyu.edu/pipermail/fom/2005-June/008999.html in the FOM
archives, 6/15/05, 9:18PM. NOTE: The title of #269 has been corrected from
the original.
250. Extreme Cardinals/Pi01 7/31/05 8:34PM
251. Embedding Axioms 8/1/05 10:40AM
252. Pi01 Revisited 10/25/05 10:35PM
253. Pi01 Progress 10/26/05 6:32AM
254. Pi01 Progress/more 11/10/05 4:37AM
255. Controlling Pi01 11/12 5:10PM
256. NAME:finite inclusion theory 11/21/05 2:34AM
257. FIT/more 11/22/05 5:34AM
258. Pi01/Simplification/Restatement 11/27/05 2:12AM
259. Pi01 pointer 11/30/05 10:36AM
260. Pi01/simplification 12/3/05 3:11PM
261. Pi01/nicer 12/5/05 2:26AM
262. Correction/Restatement 12/9/05 10:13AM
263. Pi01/digraphs 1 1/13/06 1:11AM
264. Pi01/digraphs 2 1/27/06 11:34AM
265. Pi01/digraphs 2/more 1/28/06 2:46PM
266. Pi01/digraphs/unifying 2/4/06 5:27AM
267. Pi01/digraphs/progress 2/8/06 2:44AM
268. Finite to Infinite 1 2/22/06 9:01AM
269. Pi01,Pi00/digraphs 2/25/06 3:09AM
270. Finite to Infinite/Restatement 2/25/06 8:25PM
271. Clarification of Smith Article 3/22/06 5:58PM
272. Sigma01/optimal 3/24/06 1:45PM
273: Sigma01/optimal/size 3/28/06 12:57PM
274: Subcubic Graph Numbers 4/1/06 11:23AM
275: Kruskal Theorem/Impredicativity 4/2/06 12:16PM
276: Higman/Kruskal/impredicativity 4/4/06 6:31AM
277: Strict Predicativity 4/5/06 1:58PM
278: Ultra/Strict/Predicativity/Higman 4/8/06 1:33AM
279: Subcubic graph numbers/restated 4/8/06 3:14AN
280: Generating large caridnals/self embedding axioms 5/2/06 4:55AM
281: Linear Self Embedding Axioms 5/5/06 2:32AM
282: Adventures in Pi01 Independence 5/7/06
283: A theory of indiscernibles 5/7/06 6:42PM
284: Godel's Second 5/9/06 10:02AM
285: Godel's Second/more 5/10/06 5:55PM
286: Godel's Second/still more 5/11/06 2:05PM
287: More Pi01 adventures 5/18/06 9:19AM
288: Discrete ordered rings and large cardinals 6/1/06 11:28AM
289: Integer Thresholds in FFF 6/6/06 10:23PM
290: Independently Free Minds/Collectively Random Agents 6/12/06 11:01AM
291: Independently Free Minds/Collectively Random Agents (more) 6/13/06
5:01PM
292: Concept Calculus 1 6/17/06 5:26PM
293: Concept Calculus 2 6/20/06 6:27PM
294: Concept Calculus 3 6/25/06 5:15PM
295: Concept Calculus 4 7/3/06 2:34AM
296: Order Calculus 7/7/06 12:13PM
297: Order Calculus/restatement 7/11/06 12:16PM
298: Concept Calculus 5 7/14/06 5:40AM
299: Order Calculus/simplification 7/23/06 7:38PM
300: Exotic Prefix Theory 9/14/06 7:11AM
301: Exotic Prefix Theory (correction) 9/14/06 6:09PM
302: PA Completeness 10/29/06 2:38AM
303: PA Completeness (restatement) 10/30/06 11:53AM
304: PA Completeness/strategy 11/4/06 10:57AM
305: Proofs of Godel's Second 12/21/06 11:31AM
306: Godel's Second/more 12/23/06 7:39PM
307: Formalized Consistency Problem Solved 1/14/07 6:24PM
308: Large Large Cardinals 7/05/07 5:01AM
309: Thematic PA Incompleteness 10/22/07 10:56AM
310: Thematic PA Incompleteness 2 11/6/07 5:31AM
311: Thematic PA Incompleteness 3 11/8/07 8:35AM
312: Pi01 Incompleteness 11/13/07 3:11PM
313: Pi01 Incompleteness 12/19/07 8:00AM
314: Pi01 Incompleteness/Digraphs 12/22/07 4:12AM
315: Pi01 Incompleteness/Digraphs/#2 1/16/08 7:32AM
Harvey Friedman
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