Operating Systems

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3.4.2: Detecting Deadlocks with Multiple Unit Resources

This is more difficult.

3.4.3: Recovery from deadlock

Preemption

Perhaps you can temporarily preempt a resource from a process. Not likely.

Rollback

Database (and other) systems take periodic checkpoints. If the system does take checkpoints, one can roll back to a checkpoint whenever a deadlock is detected. Somehow must guarantee forward progress.

Kill processes

Can always be done but might be painful. For example some processes have had effects that can't be simply undone. Print, launch a missile, etc.

Remark: We are doing 3.6 before 3.5 since 3.6 is easier.

3.6: Deadlock Prevention

Attack one of the coffman/havender conditions

3.6.1: Attacking Mutual Exclusion

Idea is to use spooling instead of mutual exclusion. Not possible for many kinds of resources

3.6.2: Attacking Hold and Wait

Require each processes to request all resources at the beginning of the run. This is often called One Shot.

3.6.3: Attacking No Preempt

Normally not possible. That is, some resources are inherently preemptable (e.g., memory). For those deadlock is not an issue. Other resources are non-preemptable, such as a robot arm. It is normally not possible to find a way to preempt one of these latter resources.

3.6.4: Attacking Circular Wait

Establish a fixed ordering of the resources and require that they be requested in this order. So if a process holds resources #34 and #54, it can request only resources #55 and higher.

It is easy to see that a cycle is no longer possible.

3.5: Deadlock Avoidance

Let's see if we can tiptoe through the tulips and avoid deadlock states even though our system does permit all four of the necessary conditions for deadlock.

An optimistic resource manager is one that grants every request as soon as it can. To avoid deadlocks with all four conditions present, the manager must be smart not optimistic.

3.5.1 Resource Trajectories

We plot progress of each process along an axis. In the example we show, there are two processes, hence two axes, i.e., planar. This procedure assumes that we know the entire request and release pattern of the processes in advance so it is not a practical solution. I present it as it is some motivation for the practical solution that follows, the Banker's Algorithm.

3.5.2: Safe States

Avoiding deadlocks given some extra knowledge.

Definition: A state is safe if there is an ordering of the processes such that: if the processes are run in this order, they will all terminate (assuming none exceeds its claim).

Recall the comparison made above between detecting deadlocks (with multi-unit resources) and the banker's algorithm

In the definition of a safe state no assumption is made about the running processes; that is, for a state to be safe termination must occur no matter what the processes do (providing the all terminate and to not exceed their claims). Making no assumption is the same as making the most pessimistic assumption.

Give an example of each of the four possibilities. A state that is

  1. Safe and deadlocked--not possible.

  2. Safe and not deadlocked--trivial (e.g., no arcs).

  3. Not safe and deadlocked--easy (any deadlocked state).

  4. Not safe and not deadlocked--interesting.