Operating Systems

================ Start Lecture #1 ================
G22.2250 Operating Systems
2006-07 Spring
Allan Gottlieb
Wed 5-6:50pm Rm 109 Ciww

Chapter -1: Administrivia

I start at -1 so that when we get to chapter 1, the numbering will agree with the text.

(-1).1: Contact Information

(-1).2: Course Web Page

There is a web site for the course. You can find it from my home page, which is http://cs.nyu.edu/~gottlieb

(-1).3: Textbook

The course text is Tanenbaum, "Modern Operating Systems", 2nd Edition

(-1).4: Computer Accounts and Mailman Mailing List

(-1).5: Grades

Grades will computed as 40%*LabAverage + 60%*FinalExam (but see homeworks below).

(-1).6: The Upper Left Board

I use the upper left board for lab/homework assignments and announcements. I should never erase that board. Viewed as a file it is group readable (the group is those in the room), appendable by just me, and (re-)writable by no one. If you see me start to erase an announcement, let me know.

I try very hard to remember to write all announcements on the upper left board and I am normally successful. If, during class, you see that I have forgotten to record something, please let me know. HOWEVER, if I forgot and no one reminds me, the assignment has still been given.

(-1).7: Homeworks and Labs

I make a distinction between homeworks and labs.

Labs are

Homeworks are

(-1).7.1: Homework Numbering

Homeworks are numbered by the class in which they are assigned. So any homework given today is homework #1. Even if I do not give homework today, the homework assigned next class will be homework #2. Unless I explicitly state otherwise, all homeworks assignments can be found in the class notes. So the homework present in the notes for lecture #n is homework #n (even if I inadvertently forgot to write it to the upper left board).

(-1).7.2: Doing Labs on non-NYU Systems

You may solve lab assignments on any system you wish, but ...

(-1).7.3: Obtaining Help with the Labs

Good methods for obtaining help include

  1. Asking me during office hours (see web page for my hours).
  2. Asking the mailing list.
  3. Asking another student, but ...
    Your lab must be your own.
    That is, each student must submit a unique lab. Naturally, simply changing comments, variable names, etc. does not produce a unique lab.

(-1).7.4: Computer Language Used for Labs

You may write your lab in Java, C, or C++.

(-1).8: A Grade of “Incomplete”

The rules for incompletes and grade changes are set by the school and not the department or individual faculty member. The rules set by GSAS state:

The assignment of the grade Incomplete Pass(IP) or Incomplete Fail(IF) is at the discretion of the instructor. If an incomplete grade is not changed to a permanent grade by the instructor within one year of the beginning of the course, Incomplete Pass(IP) lapses to No Credit(N), and Incomplete Fail(IF) lapses to Failure(F).

Permanent grades may not be changed unless the original grade resulted from a clerical error.

(-1).9: An Introductory OS Course with a Programming Prerequisite

(-1).9.1: This is an introductory course ...

I do not assume you have had an OS course as an undergraduate, and I do not assume you have had extensive experience working with an operating system.

If you have already had an operating systems course, this course is probably not appropriate. For example, if you can explain the following concepts/terms, the course is probably too elementary for you.

... with a Programming Prerequisite

I do assume you are an experienced programmer, at least to the extent that you are comfortable writing modest size (a few hundred lines) programs. You may write your programs in C, C++, or java.

(-1).10 Academic Integrity Policy

Our policy on academic integrity, which applies to all graduate courses in the department, can be found here.

Chapter 0: Interlude on Linkers

Originally called a linkage editor by IBM.

A linker is an example of a utility program included with an operating system distribution. Like a compiler, the linker is not part of the operating system per se, i.e. it does not run in supervisor mode. Unlike a compiler it is OS dependent (what object/load file format is used) and is not (normally) language dependent.

0.1: What does a Linker Do?

Link of course.

When the compiler and assembler have finished processing a module, they produce an object module that is almost runnable. There are two remaining tasks to be accomplished before object modules can be run. Both are involved with linking (that word, again) together multiple object modules. The tasks are relocating relative addresses and resolving external references. relocate

0.1.1: Relocating Relative Addresses


0.1.2: Resolving External Reverences


The output of a linker is called a load module because it is now ready to be loaded and run.

To see how a linker works lets consider the following example, which is the first dataset from lab #1. The description in lab1 is more detailed.

The target machine is word addressable and has a memory of 250 words, each consisting of 4 decimal digits. The first (leftmost) digit is the opcode and the remaining three digits form an address.

Each object module contains three parts, a definition list, a use list, and the program text itself. Each definition is a pair (sym, loc). Each entry in the use list is a symbol and a list of uses of that symbol.

The program text consists of a count N followed by N pairs (type, word), where word is a 4-digit instruction described above and type is a single character indicating if the address in the word is Immediate, Absolute, Relative, or External.

Input set #1

1 xy 2
1 z 4
5 R 1004  I 5678  E 2777  R 8002  E 7002
0
1 z 3
6 R 8001  E 1777  E 1001  E 3002  R 1002  A 1010
0
1 z 1
2 R 5001  E 4777
1 z 2
1 xy 2
3 A 8000  E 1777  E 2001

The first pass simply finds the base address of each module and produces the symbol table giving the values for xy and z (2 and 15 respectively). The second pass does the real work using the symbol table and base addresses produced in pass one.

              Symbol Table
                  xy=2
                  z=15

             Memory Map
 +0
 0:       R 1004      1004+0 = 1004
 1:       I 5678               5678
 2: xy:   E 2000 ->z           2015
 3:       R 8002      8002+0 = 8002
 4:       E 7001 ->xy          7002
 +5
 0        R 8001      8001+5 = 8006
 1        E 1000 ->z           1015
 2        E 1000 ->z           1015
 3        E 3000 ->z           3015
 4        R 1002      1002+5 = 1007
 5        A 1010               1010
 +11
 0        R 5001      5001+11= 5012
 1        E 4000 ->z           4015
 +13
 0        A 8000               8000
 1        E 1001 ->z           1015
 2 z:     E 2000 ->xy          2002

The output above is more complex than I expect you to produce it is there to help me explain what the linker is doing. All I would expect from you is the symbol table and the rightmost column of the memory map.

You must process each module separately, i.e. except for the symbol table and memory map your space requirements should be proportional to the largest module not to the sum of the modules. This does NOT make the lab harder.

(Unofficial) Remark: It is faster (less I/O) to do a one pass approach, but is harder since you need “fix-up code” whenever a use occurs in a module that precedes the module with the definition.

The linker on unix was mistakenly called ld (for loader), which is unfortunate since it links but does not load.

Historical remark: Unix was originally developed at Bell Labs; the seventh edition of unix was made publicly available (perhaps earlier ones were somewhat available). The 7th ed man page for ld begins (see http://cm.bell-labs.com/7thEdMan).

.TH LD 1
.SH NAME
ld \- loader
.SH SYNOPSIS
.B ld
[ option ] file ...
.SH DESCRIPTION
.I Ld
combines several
object programs into one, resolves external
references, and searches libraries.
By the mid 80s the Berkeley version (4.3BSD) man page referred to ld as "link editor" and this more accurate name is now standard in unix/linux distributions.

During the 2004-05 fall semester a student wrote to me “BTW - I have meant to tell you that I know the lady who wrote ld. She told me that they called it loader, because they just really didn't have a good idea of what it was going to be at the time.”

Lab #1: Implement a two-pass linker. The specific assignment is detailed on the class home page.

End of Interlude on Linkers

Chapter 1: Introduction

Homework: Read Chapter 1 (Introduction)

Levels of abstraction (virtual machines)

1.1: What is an operating system?

The kernel itself raises the level of abstraction and hides details. For example a user (of the kernel) can write to a file (a concept not present in hardware) and ignore whether the file resides on a floppy, a CD-ROM, or a hard disk. The user can also ignore issues such as whether the file is stored contiguously or is broken into blocks.

The kernel is a resource manager (so users don't conflict).

How is an OS fundamentally different from a compiler (say)?

Answer: Concurrency! Per Brinch Hansen in Operating Systems Principles (Prentice Hall, 1973) writes.

The main difficulty of multiprogramming is that concurrent activities can interact in a time-dependent manner, which makes it practically impossibly to locate programming errors by systematic testing. Perhaps, more than anything else, this explains the difficulty of making operating systems reliable.

Homework: 1, 2. (unless otherwise stated, problems numbers are from the end of the chapter in Tanenbaum.)

1.2 History of Operating Systems

  1. Single user (no OS).

  2. Batch, uniprogrammedR, run to completion.

  3. Multiprogrammed
  4. Personal Computers

Homework: 3.

1.3: OS Zoo

There is not as much difference between mainframe, server, multiprocessor, and PC OSes as Tannenbaum suggests. For example Windows NT/2000/XP, Unix and Linux are used on all.

1.3.1: Mainframe Operating Systems

Used in data centers, these systems ofter tremendous I/O capabilities and extensive fault tolerance.

1.3.2: Server Operating Systems

Perhaps the most important servers today are web servers. Again I/O (and network) performance are critical.

1.3.3: Multiprocessor Operating systems

These existed almost from the beginning of the computer age, but now are not exotic.

1.3.4: PC Operating Systems (client machines)

Some OSes (e.g. Windows ME) are tailored for this application. One could also say they are restricted to this application.

1.3.5: Real-time Operating Systems

1.3.6: Embedded Operating Systems

1.3.7: Smart Card Operating Systems

Very limited in power (both meanings of the word).

Multiple computers

Homework: 5.

1.4: Computer Hardware Review

Tannenbaum's treatment is very brief and superficial. Mine is even more so. The picture above is very simplified. (For one thing, today separate buses are used to Memory and Video.)

A bus is a set of wires that connect two or more devices. Only one message can be on the bus at a time. All the devices “receive” the message: There are no switches in between to steer the message to the desired destination, but often some of the wires form an address that indicates which devices should actually process the message.

1.4.1: Processors

We will ignore processor concepts such as program counters and stack pointers. We will also ignore computer design issues such as pipelining and superscalar. We do, however, need the notion of a trap, that is an instruction that atomically switches the processor into privileged mode and jumps to a pre-defined physical address.

1.4.2: Memory

We will ignore caches, but will (later) discuss demand paging, which is very similar (although demand paging and caches use completely disjoint terminology). In both cases, the goal is to combine large slow memory with small fast memory to achieve the effect of large fast memory.

The central memory in a system is called RAM (Random Access Memory). A key point is that it is volatile, i.e. the memory loses its data if power is turned off.

Disk Hardware

I don't understand why Tanenbaum discusses disks here instead of in the next section entitled I/O devices, but he does. I don't.

ROM / PROM / EPROM / EEPROM / Flash Ram

ROM (Read Only Memory) is used to hold data that will not change, e.g. the serial number of a computer or the program use in a microwave. ROM is non-volatile. A modern, familiar ROM is CD-ROM (or the denser DVD).

But often this unchangable data needs to be changed (e.g., to fix bugs). This gives rise first to PROM (Programmable ROM), which, like a CD-R, can be written once (as opposed to being mass produced already written like a CD-ROM), and then to EPROM (Erasable PROM; not Erasable ROM as in Tanenbaum), which is like a CD-RW. An EPROM is especially convenient if it can be erased with a normal circuit (EEPROM, Electrically EPROM or Flash RAM).

Memory Protection and Context Switching

As mentioned above when discussing OS/MFT and OS/MVT, multiprogramming requires that we protect one process from another. That is we need to translate the virtual addresses of each program into distinct physical addresses. The hardware that performs this translation is called the MMU or Memory Management Unit.

When context switching from one process to another, the translation must change, which can be an expensive operation.

1.4.3: I/O Devices

When we do I/O for real, I will show a real disk opened up and illustrate the components

Devices are often quite complicated to manage and a separate computer, called a controller, is used to translate simple commands (read sector 123456) into what the device requires (read cylinder 321, head 6, sector 765). Actually the controller does considerably more, e.g. calculates a checksum for error detection.

How does the OS know when the I/O is complete?

  1. It can busy wait constantly asking the controller if the I/O is complete. This is the easiest (by far) but has low performance. This is also called polling or PIO (Programmed I/O).
  2. It can tell the controller to start the I/O and then switch to other tasks. The controller must then interrupt the OS when the I/O is done. Less waiting, but harder (concurrency!). Also on modern processors a single interrupt is rather costly. Much more than a single memory reference, but much, much less than a disk I/O.
  3. Some controllers can do DMA (Direct Memory Access) in which case they deal directly with memory after being started by the CPU. This takes work from the CPU and halves the number of bus accesses.

We discuss this more in chapter 5. In particular, we explain the last point about halving bus accesses.

1.4.4: Buses

I don't care very much about the names of the buses, but the diagram given in the book doesn't show a modern design. The one below does. On the right is a figure showing the specifications for a chip set introduced in 2000. The chip set has two different width PCI busses, which is not shown below. Instead of having the chip set supply USB, a PCI USB controller may be used. Finally, the use of ISA is decreasing. Indeed my last desktop didn't have an ISA bus and I had to replace my ISA sound card with a PCI version.